Chapter 2 - The Technology of Spears and Digging Sticks: Upright Posture and Bipedal Locomotion
Balter, Michael, Candidate human ancestor from South Africa sparks praise and debate. Science 328:154-155, April 2010.
Berger, Lee R., Darryl J. deRuiter, Steven E. Churchill, Peter Schmid, Kristian J. Carlson, Paul H.G.M. Dirks, and Job M. Kibii, 2010, Australopithecus sediba: A new species of Homo-like Australopith from South Africa. Science 328:195-204.
Brace, C. Loring, The Stages of Human Evolution (Fifth Edition). Prentice-Hall, 1995.
Bunn, Henry T., Ellen M. Kroll, Stanley H. Ambrose, Anna K. Behrensmeyer, Lewis R. Binford, Robert J. Blumenschine, Richard G. Klein, Henry M. McHenry, Christopher J. O'Brien, and J. J. Wymer, 1986, Systematic butchery by Plio/Pleistocene hominids at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Current Anthropology, 27(5):431-452.
Burunat, Enrique, 2014, Love Is the cause of human evolution. Advances in Anthropology 4:99-116.
Chapais, Bernard, Primeval Kinship: How Pair-Bonding Gave Birth to Human Society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.
Darwin, Charles, The Descent of Man. New York: Penguin Books, 2007.
De Waal, Frans, Bonobo Sex and Society. Scientific American 272(3):82-88, March, 1995.
Dewsbury, Donald A., Patterns of copulatory behavior in male mammals. The Quarterly Review of Biology 47(1):1-33, March 1972.
Domínguez-Rodrigo, Enrique, 2002, Hunting and scavenging by early humans: The state of the debate. Journal of World Prehistory 16(1):1-54.
Estebaranz, L. and Perez-Perez, A., Buccal Dental Microwear Signals in the Gracile Australopithecines A. anamensis, A. afarensis, and A. africanus: Adaptations to Open Environments with Climatic Shift. Paleoanthropology Society, 2010 Annual Meeting. St. Louis Missouri, April, 2010.
Flinn, Mark V., David C. Geary, and Carol V. Ward, 2005, Ecological dominance, social competition, and coalitionary arms races: Why humans evolved extraordinary intelligence. Evolution and Human Behavior 26:10-46.
Fuentes, Augustin, 1998, Re-evaluating primate monogamy. American Anthropologist 100(4):890-907.
Gilby, Ian C., 2006, Meat sharing among the Gombe chimpanzees: harassment and reciprocal exchange. Animal Behavior 71:953-863.
Gilby, Ian C., Lynn E. Eberly, Lilian Pintea, and Anne. E. Pusey, 2006, Ecological and social influences on the hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii. Animal Behavior 72:179-180.
Graber, Robert Bates, Randall R. Skelton, Ralph M. Rowlett, Ronald Kephart, and Susan Love Brown, Meeting Anthropology Phase to Phase: Growing Up, Spreading Out, Crowding In, Switching On. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2000.
Groves, Colin, The what, why, and how of primate taxonomy. International Journal of Primatology 25(5):1105-1126, October, 2004.
Haile-Selassie, Yohannes, Gen Suwa, and Tim D. White, 2004, Late Miocene teeth from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, and early hominid dental evolution. Science 303(5663):1503-1505.
Hardy, Bruce L. and Gary T. Garufi, 1998, Identification of woodworking on stone tools through residue and use-wear analysis: Experimental results. Journal of Archaeological Science 25:177-184.
Hatley, Tom and John Kappelman, 1980, Bears, pigs, and Plio-Pleistocene Hominids: A case for the exploitation of belowground food resources. Human Ecology 8(4):371-387.
Holloway, Ralph L., 1967, Tools and teeth: Some speculations regarding canine reduction. American Anthropologist 69(1):63-67.
Hunt, Kevin D., 1994, The evolution of human bipedality: Ecology and functional morphology. Journal of Human Evolution 26:183-202.
Jablonski, Nina G. and George Chaplin, 1993, Origin of habitual terrestrial bipedalism in the ancestor of the Hominidae. Journal of Human Evolution 24:259-280.
Johanson, Donald and Blake Edgar, 1996, From Lucy to Language. New York, Simon & Schuster.
Kortlandt, Adriaan, 198, How might early hominids have defended themselves against large predators and food competitors? Journal of Human Evolution 9(2):79–94.
Lawler, Richard R., 2009, Monomorphism, male-male competition, and mechanisms of sexual dimorphism. Journal of Human Evolution 57:321–325.
Leakey, Meave G., Craig S. Feibel, Ian McDougall, and Alan Walker, 2002, New four-million-year-old hominid species from Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya. Nature 376:565-571.
Lovejoy, C. Owen, 1981, The origin of man, Science (New Series) 211(4480):341-350.
Mann, Alan and Mark Weiss, 1996, Hominoid phylogeny and taxonomy: A consideration of the molecular and fossil evidence in an historical perspective. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5(1):169–181.
Marlowe, Frank W., 2007, Hunting and gathering: The human sexual division of foraging labor. Cross-Cultural Research 41(2):170-195.
Newman, Russell W., 1970, Why man is such a sweaty and thirsty naked animal: A speculative review. Human Biology 42:12–27.
Pruetz, Jill D. and Paco Bertolani, 2007, Savanna chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, hunt with tools. Current Biology 17(5):412-417.
Reader, John, Missing Links: In Search of Human Origins, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Roach, Neil T., Madhusudhan Venkadesan, Michael J. Rainbow, and Daniel E. Lieberman, 2013, Elastic energy storage in the shoulder and the evolution of high-speed throwing in Homo. Nature 498:483–486.
Rodman, Peter S. & Henry M. McHenry, 1980, Bioenergetics and the origin of hominid bipedalism. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 52:103–106.
Schmid, Peter, 2004, Functional interpretation of the Laetoli footprints. In From Biped to Strider: The Emergence of Modern Human Walking, Running, and Resource Transport. Jeffrey Meldrum and Charles E. Hilton, eds. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Stanford, Craig, 2003, Upright: The Evolutionary Key to Becoming Human. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Suwa, Gen, Reiko T. Kono, Scott W. Simpson, Berhane Asfaw, C. Owen Lovejoy, and Tim D. White, 2009, Paleobiological implications of the Ardipithecus ramidus dentition. Science 326(5949):94-99.
Thieme, Hartmut, 1997, Lower Palaeolithic hunting spears from Germany. Nature 385(6619):807-810.
Tsukahara, Takahiro, 2005, Lions eat chimpanzees: The first evidence of predation by lions on wild chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 29(1):1-11.
Verhaegen, Marc and Pierre-François Puech, 2000, Hominid lifestyle and diet reconsidered: Paleo-Environmental and comparative data. Human Evolution 15:151-162.
Videan, Elaine N. and W.C. McGrew, 2002, Bipedality in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus): Testing hypotheses on the evolution of bipedalism. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 118(2):184-190.
Washburn, Sherwood and R. Ciochon, 1974, Canine teeth: Notes on controversies in the study of human evolution. American Anthropologist 76(4):765-784.
Wheeler, P. E., 1984, The evolution of bipedality and loss of functional body hair in humans. Journal of Human Evolution 13:91–98.
Wheeler, Peter E., 1992, The influence of the loss of functional body hair on the water budgets of early hominids. Journal of Human Evolution 23:379-388.
White, Tim D., Berhane Asfaw, Yonas Beyene, Yohannes Haile-Selassie, C. Owen Lovejoy, Gen Suwa, and Giday WoldeGabriel, 2009, Ardipithecus ramidus and the paleobiology of early hominids. Science 326(5949):64,75-86.
Wildman, Derek E., Monica Uddin, Guozhen Liu, Lawrence I. Grossman, and Morris Goodman, 2003, Implications of natural selection in shaping 99.4% nonsynonymous DNA identity between humans and chimpanzees: Enlarging genus Homo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(12):7181–7188.
Wilford, John N., 2009, Fossil skeleton from Africa predates Lucy. New York Times, October 1, 2009.
Wills, Christopher, Children of Prometheus: The Accelerating Pace of Human Evolution. Reading, Massachusetts: Perseus Books, 1998.